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Fundamental Liberties, Part 2, Malaysian Constitution, Article 10

  1. Subject to Clauses (2), (3) and (4) -

a) every citizen has the right to freedom of speech and expression;

b) all citizens have the right to assemble peaceably and without arms;

c) all citizens have the right to form associations

On June 1, 1964, the United States Supreme Court strikes down Washington laws requiring state employees to take loyalty oaths. The loyalty oath statutes are challenged by more than 60 faculty members, staff and students of the University of Washington in a case organised by the Washington chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the UW chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP).

The court rules that both a 1955 statute requiring all state employees to swear they are not "subversive persons" and a 1931 statute requiring teachers to swear to promote respect for government institutions are unconstitutionally vague and violate due process.

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