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Hudud must be debated rationally by all M'sians

Civil Society Organisations  |  Published:  |  Modified:

COMMENT With regard to the controversial proposal to enforce Kelantan Syariah Criminal Code II (1993) 2015 (KSCC), we, the 93 undersigned organisations, call for inclusive, open and rational debates and deliberation involving all stakeholders.

Specifically, we hold the following views:

Not simple 'for or against'

The KSCC has far reaching implications, way beyond the hudud (fixed) punishments for theft, robbery, adultery, sodomy, false accusation of adultery/sodomy, intoxication and heresy.

It also covers the qisas (retaliatory) punishments for homicide and bodily injury, which are currently governed by the Penal Code, and the ta’zir (discretionary) punishments when the hudud and qisas punishments cannot be imposed, for example because of failure to meet requirements of evidence.

Currently, these four categories of offences - theft, robbery, homicide and bodily injury - are governed by the Penal Code, with the evidence requirement laid down by the Criminal Procedure Code (CPC).

The KSCC must therefore be read and construed together with the Kelantan Syariah Court Evidence Enactment 2002 (KSCEE) which, by way of sub-section 39(2) of KSCC, imposes its complementary evidence requirements for theft, robbery, homicide and bodily injury.

The misleading calls to support or oppose the hudud punishments therefore dangerously divert the public attention to the full ramifications of the KSCC. Such simplistic positioning must be replaced with honest, comprehensive and detailed scrutiny of the KSCC and KSCEE.

Non-Muslims involved if victim

While non-Muslims are excluded from the KSCC as the accused party, such exclusion does not apply to them as the victims. Non-Muslims are therefore also legitimate stakeholders. As stipulated in Section 2 of the KSCC, all cases of theft, robbery, homicide and bodily injury involving Muslims as the accused party will be tried under the law. Among the implications are:

a. Non-Muslims, women, underaged persons and adult male Muslims who are not “just” (namely, who have not abided religious requirements) will not have full testifying competence in the Syariah Court. (Section 41 of the Code, and Sections 83 and 86 of KSCEE); and

b. When the prosecution cannot produce testimonies by two “just” adult male Muslims in murder cases, the court can only impose ta’zir punishments which exclude death penalty, resulting in great inequality before the law. (Sections 29, 39 of the KSCC).

East Malaysians didn't sign up for syariah

The law will apply to not only Kelantaneses but anyone residing in or travelling to Kelantan. Non-Kelantanese are therefore also legitimate stakeholders.

This is especially true for Sabahans and Sarawakians, whose founding fathers and mothers did not sign up for a Federation of Malaysia with syariah criminal justice in any of its parts. Among the implications are:

a. All Muslims, including Sabahans and Sarawakians who are accused of stealing or robbing, will be tried in a syariah court and if the goods involved reach the value of 4.45 grammes of gold (about RM620 at current price), they may face the punishment of amputation. (Sections 6-11 of the KSCC);

b. All Muslims, including Sabahans and Sarawakians who are convicted of adultery or sodomy in Kelantan, may face the death penalty by way of stoning. (Sections 12-15 of the KSCC);

c. All Muslims, including Sabahans and Sarawakians who are convicted of drinking alcohol in Kelantan, may face 40 to 80 lashes. (Section 22 of the KSCC); and

d. All Muslims, including Sabahans and Sarawakians who are convicted of heresy (irtidad or riddah), may face the death penalty and forfeiture of all properties. (Section 23 of the KSCC).

All have right to discuss hudud

As all Malaysians, Muslims or non-Muslims, Kelantanese or non-Kelantanese, are rightful stakeholders in the enforcement of KSCC, no one should be penalised, threatened or ridiculed for having or expressing any opinion on the matter.

We solemnly condemn any act or expression of hatred aiming to silence dissidents. All stakeholders - whether supporting or opposing the KSCC - must strive for inclusive, open and rational debates and dialogues to respect differences, foster understanding and seek consensus.

It must not be a crime for any Malaysian to disagree with any other.

While Malaysians may hold vastly opposing views on the specific mechanisms (wasail) of syariah law in criminal justice, we can and should strive for convergence in attaining the universal purpose (maqasid) of syariah law and justice.

Instead of battling pragmatic difficulties, the advocates of syariah law should consider the alternative of concentrating their efforts on introducing ideas compatible for our plural society from the rich syariah tradition that may improve quality of justice and at the same time, do not cause any discrimination to or unnecessary segregation of citizens on the grounds of religion, ethnicity, gender and lifestyle.

Might not right

The success of Islamic banking in winning over the hearts and minds of non-Muslims through rigour and proven benefits, rather than a deceiving assurance of non-Muslim exclusion or a sloppy "trial-and-error" attitude, should be an inspiring example.

The implementation of KSCC must not be decided on a winner-takes-all manner, such as a simple majority in the Dewan Rakyat, for this will risk tearing the country apart.

The inclusive spirit of the Federal Constitution and the 1963 Malaysia Agreement, which lay down the secular basis of the Federation of Malaysia, must be upheld.


The joint statement is endorsed by the following organisations:

1. All Women's  Action Society (AWAM)

2. Anak Muda Harapan Malaysia (AMHM)

3. Angkatan Warga Aman Malaysia (WargaAMAN)

4. Archdiocesan Human Development Commission (AHDC) Kota Kinabalu, Sabah

5. Baramkini (Sarawak)

6. Belia Saint Aloysius Limbanak, Sabah

7. Borneo's Plight in Malaysia Foundation (BoPiM)

8. Borneo Resources Institute Malaysia, Sarawak (BRIMAS) ,

9. Consumer Association And Protection Sabah (CAPS)

10. Cornerstone Resources Berhad, Sabah

11. Damn the Dams, Sarawak

12. ENGAGE

13. Federation of Malaysian Indian Organisation (PRIMA)

14. Friends of Kota Damansara

15. Gerakan Anak Sarawak (GASAK)

16. Green Friends Sabah

17. Group of Concerned Citizens

18. Institute for Development of Alternative Living (IDEAL)

19. Islamic Renaissance Front (IRF)

20. Japan Graduates Association, Malaysia (JAGAM)

21. Jaringan Orang Asal SeMalaysia (JOAS)

22. Jaringan Tanah Hak Adat Bangsa Asal Sarawak (TAHABAS)

23. Jawatankuasa Bertindak Kuala Lumpur Tak Nak Insinerator

24. JIHAD for JUSTICE

25. Johor persahabatan Semparuthi

26. Kill The Bill

27. Komiti Belia Perlaksana Child of Jesus, Sabah

28. Komiti Belia Perlaksana Minintod, Sabah

29. Kumpulan Aktivis Mahasiswa Independen (KAMI)

30. Land, Empowerment, Animal, People (LEAP), Sabah

31. LLG Cultural Development Centre

32. Lingkarn Islam Traditional (LIT)

33. Maljis Perundingan Malaysian Agama Buddha, Kristian, Hindu, Sikh dan Tao (MCCBCHST)

34. Malaysia Christian Youth Association (MCYA)

35. Malaysia Trade Union Congress (MTUC), Sabah Division,

36. Malaysian Indians Progressive Association (MIPAS)

37. Malaysian Indians Transformation Action Team (MITRA)

38. Malaysian Students for Liverty

39. Malaysian Youth Care Association (PRIHATIN)

40. Monitoring Sustainable Globalisation (MSN)

41. National Indian Rights Action Team (NIAT)

42. Negeri Sembilan Chinese Assembly Hall (NSCAH)

43. Northern Green Youths, Sarawak

44. Oriental Hearts and Mind Study Institute (OHMSI)

45. Sabah Partners in Community Organising (Pacos Trust)

46. Peoples Green Coalition, Sarawak

47. People Welfare and Rights Organisation (POWER)

48. Penang Chinese Town Hall (PCTH)

49. Perak Women for Women Society (PWW)

50. Persatuan Alumni PBTUSM Kuala Lumpur dan Selangor

51. Persatuan Bekas Siswazah Univesiti dan Kolej di China, Malaysia (LiuHua)

52. Persatuan Kesedaran Komuniti Selangor (EMPOWER)

53. Persatuan Komuniti Prihatin Selangor Dan Kuala Lumpur (PRIHATIN)

54. Persatuan Masyarakat Selangor dan Wilayah Persekutuan (PERMAS)

55. Persatuan Promosi Hak Asasi Manusia (PROHAM)

56. Persatuan Rapat Malaysia (RAPAT)

57. Persatuan Sahabat Wanita, Selangor (PSWS)

58. Projek Dialog (PD)

59. Pusat Komunikasi Masyarakt (KOMAS)

60. Pusat Sumber Adat dan Mediasi Kaum Anak Negeri Sabah (PUSAKA)

61. Rise. Of. Sarawak. Efforts (ROSE)

62. Sabah Banking Employees' Union (SBEU)

63. Sabah Environmental Protection Association (SEPA)

64. Sabah Women’s Action Resource Group (SAWO)

65. Saccess Sarawak

66. Sahabat Rakyat

67. SALT Movement SALT

68. Sarawak Dayak Indigenous Association (SADIA)

69. Sarawak Women for Women Society (SWWS)

70. SAVE Rivers

71. Saya Anak Bangsa Malaysia (SABM)

72. Saya Anak Bangsa Malaysia in Australia  

73. Selangor and Kuala Lumpur Hokkien Association Youth Section

74. Sembang-Sembang Forum, Sarawak

75. Sisters in Islam (SIS)

76. Solidarity for Civil Rights in China (SCRC)

77. Suara Rakyat Malaysia (SUARAM)

78. St. Marcellinus Church, Minintod, Sabah

79. St. Theresa Child of Jesus Church, Sabah

80. Tamil Foundation   (TF)

81. Tamilar Action Force (TAF)

82. Tenaganita Women’s Force

83. Teoh Beng Hock Trust for Democracy

84. The Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall

85. Tim Pelayanan Belia Paroki Penampang, Sabah (TPBP)

86. Tindak Malaysia

87. United Chinese School Alumni Associations of Malaysia (UCSAAM)

88. We Are Malaysians

89. We Are One Race- Human Race-

90. Women’s Aid Organisation (WAO)

91. Women’s Centre for Change (WCC) Penang

92. Women Development Organisation of Malaysia

93. Writer Alliance for Media Independence (WAMI)

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